Por and para both mean for and it can be confusing working out which to use. Below are some rules to help you decide.
You can learn some of the set expressions that use por here.
Connectives link together your ideas. They help you to expand your sentences and make the text flow more easily for the reader. Using connectives in your work will help you to produce more detailed and sophisticated answers.
Use some of the connectives below in your work.
You can learn theses connective on quizlet here
For regular verbs, remove the AR, ER or IR ending and add the correct one from the list below. Take care to think carefully which for you need when you use names. For example: Maria and I could be replaced by we so you need the nosotros form. Kelly and Jphn could be replaced by they so you need the ellos form.
For an explanation of when to use the present tense, see here
It is very important that you learn these endings and apply them correctly.
You use gustar to show what you like, but you use it in a slightly different way to other verbs and you need to make it agree in the plural.
Use the table below to help you use it correctly in the present tense.
Remember if you want to say you don't like something, put no in at the start. No me gusta comer fruta.
Here are some exercises for you to practise
If you would like to know more, then there is a useful video below. I suggest you concentrate on mastering the present tense first but the forms of the preterite and imperfect tense are shown below.
There are three key rules to follow when you are using adjectives in Spanish
Rule 1 - they go after the noun. Where we would say a black dog, in
Spanish this would be un perro negro (literally a dog black)
Rule 2 - the adjective must agree with the gender of the noun. Many adjectives end in -o when you find them in the dictionary. If you are talking about a feminine noun, then you change the ending to -a.
For example: un chico guapo una chica guapa
If you find an adjective in the dictionary that ends in a letter other than -o, (like importante), then it stays the same for both masculine and feminine nouns.
For example: un chico interesante una chica interesante
Rule 3 - the adjective must agree in number as well as gender. This means if you are talking about more than one noun, then you need to add an -S to the plural also.
For example: unos chicos interesantes unas chicas interesantes
unos chicos guapos unas chicas guapas
Watch the video below to help you learn the rules and then complete the interactive exercises to practise.
There are some exceptions, but if you follow these three rules you will usually be correct.
Rule 1 -- if a noun ends in a vowel (a,e,i,o or u) then add S
Rule 2 -- if a noun ends in a consonant then add ES. (If the word ends in ión, drop the accent in the plural - el camion --- los camiones)
Rule 3 -- if a noun ends in Z then it changes in the plural to CES
el pez --- los peces. El lápiz --- los lápices
Try these interactive exercises to help you practise.
The present tense
The present tense is used to describe things someone does everyday or very often. I wash my teeth / I play football on Saturdays. It also describes single present tense events - What are you doing? I am cleaning.
Estudio dibujo - I study art
¿Qué quieres? - What do you want?
Cornwall está en el sur - Cornwall is in the south
The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly or over an extended period of time. For example, where we would say "used to " like ' I used to eat vegetables. '
The imperfect tense is also used to describe what was happening during an account of something that happened in the past. For example "I was eating when the phone rang". I was eating would be in the imperfect tense.
Feelings and mental actions also usually use the imperfect tense.
María was feeling sick. María estaba enferma.
These phrases can be used with the imperfect to show how frequently an action occurred in the past.
a menudo often
a veces sometimes
cada día every day
cada año every year
con frecuencia frequently
de vez en cuando from time to time
en aquella época at that time
por un rato for awhile
tantas veces so many times
todas las semanas every week
todo el tiempo all the time
There are several ways of what happened in the past in Spanish. The preterite tense is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed.
Use of the preterite tense implies that the past action had a definite beginning and a definite end.
Jugué al tenis - I played tennis (I've stopped now, it's over and done with)
Comí una hamburguesa - I ate a hamburger
Visité un museo - I visited a museum